Just a few years after the turn of a new century, the year of 1905 saw the world take steps into a new era. It was a time of exploration and expansion, and the year provided hints of much bigger things to come.
One of the biggest events on the world stage at the time was the Russo-Japanese War. In 1905, the war entered its second and final year. Ending in September of 1905 under the Treaty of Portsmouth (mediated by American President Theodore Roosevelt), the Japanese victory over the Russian Empire surprised the world and demonstrated that Japan would be a force to be reckoned with for years to come in this new century. The Russian loss also exacerbated internal unrest, which ultimately led to Tsar Nicholas II issuing his October Manifesto, promising government reforms that included the establishment of an elected parliament.
Helping finalize westward expansion in Canada and the United States, 1905 was the year that the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were established from the existing Northwest Territories. 1905 was also the year that Las Vegas was founded in the United States. In another major political change during this year, Norway achieved independence from Sweden.
1905 was a hugely important year for the global scientific community, as Albert Einstein began working out his special theory of relativity.
1905 also saw some notable births and deaths. This was the year that philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, writer Ayn Rand, and fashion designer Christian Dior were born. This year, too, though, the world lost author Jules Verne. Verne was best known for writing Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Journey to the Center of the Earth, and Around the World in Eighty Days. Verne is widely considered to be one of the fathers of the science fiction genre.
All Nobel Prize winners of 1905
- Bertha von Suttner
- Henryk Sienkiewicz
- Philipp Lenard
- Adolf von Baeyer
Physiology or Medicine
- Robert Koch
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Which were the important events of 1905?
- 01 Jan 1905 The Trans-Siberian Railway officially opens after its completion on July 21, 1904.
- 02 Jan 1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China
- 05 Jan 1905 National Association of Audubon Society incorporates.
- 09 Jan 1905 Bloody Sunday-demonstrators fired on by tsarist troops (1 / 22 NS)
- 15 Jan 1905 Coen de Koning becomes world champion all-round skater.
- 16 Jan 1905 Baseball outfielder Frank Huelsman traded for 6th time in 8 months.
- 17 Jan 1905 Punchboards patented by Charles Brewer and C G Scannell, Chicago Illinois.
- 18 Jan 1905 French government of Combes falls.
- 22 Jan 1905 Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg, beginning of the 1905 revolution.
- 25 Jan 1905 Largest diamond, Cullinan (3106 carets), found in South Africa
- 26 Jan 1905 Han Yong-woon [Bongwan, Manhae] (1879-1944) ordained a monk in Korea.
- 27 Jan 1905 Maurice Rouvier forms government in France.
- 31 Jan 1905 Carroll Wright appointed first US Commissioner of Labor.
- 01 Feb 1905 Hague soccer team ADO forms.
- 07 Feb 1905 Dominican Republic signs treaty turning over customs collection to US.
- 08 Feb 1905 Cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands, killing some 10,000 people.
- 12 Feb 1905 In Christchurch, New Zealand, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament is opened.
- 13 Feb 1905 -40 degrees F (-40 degrees C) Warsaw Missouri (state record).
- 16 Feb 1905 At Haulbowline Base in Ireland, two explosions on board HM Submarine A5, due to petrol fumes after refueling, kill six of the eleven crew.
- 17 Feb 1905 Frances Willard becomes 1st women honored in National Statuary Hall
- 19 Feb 1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Mukden begins in Manchuria.
- 23 Feb 1905 Rotary Club International established by four men in Chicago.
- 24 Feb 1905 Simplon tunnel in Switzerland completed.
- 25 Feb 1905 Netherlands Workers van Vakverenigingen, (NVV) political party forms.
- 01 Mar 1905 Australian Conservative leader Richard Butler takes office as Premier of South Australia.
- 03 Mar 1905 US Forest Service forms.
- 04 Mar 1905 Theodore Roosevelt begins second term in office as US President.
- 05 Mar 1905 Cassie Chadwick is sentenced for 14 years in Cleveland, Ohio for fraud.
- 10 Mar 1905 Japanese Army captures Mukden (Shenyang).
- 11 Mar 1905 Stanley Cup: Ottawa Silver 7 beat Rat Portage Thisles, two games to 1.
- 14 Mar 1905 Chelsea FC is founded.
- 17 Mar 1905 Eleanor Roosevelt marries Franklin Roosevelt in New York.
- 20 Mar 1905 Grover Shoe Factory disaster: A boiler explosion, building collapse and fire in Brockton, Massachusetts kills 58.
- 23 Mar 1905 Eleftherios Venizelos calls for Crete's union with Greece, and begins what is to be known as the Theriso revolt.
- 25 Mar 1905 Rebel battle flags captured during war are returned to South.
- 28 Mar 1905 Paramaribo-Dam railway opens in Suriname, never used.
- 31 Mar 1905 German emperor Wilhelm II visits Tanger.
- 01 Apr 1905 British East African Protectorate becomes colony of Kenya.
- 02 Apr 1905 Cairo to Cape Town railway opens
- 04 Apr 1905 Earthquake in Kangra India, kills 370,000.
- 06 Apr 1905 ''Lochner v. New York'': The Supreme Court of the United States invalidates New York's 8-hour-day law.
- 12 Apr 1905 French Dufaux brothers test helicopter.
- 17 Apr 1905 US Supreme court judges maximum work day unconstitutional.
- 19 Apr 1905 9th Boston Marathon won by Fred Lorz of New York in 2:38:25.4.
- 22 Apr 1905 Operations begin uniting conservatory of Nature Monument in Amsterdam.
- 25 Apr 1905 Whites win right to vote in South Africa.
- 27 Apr 1905 World Exposition opens in Luik.
- 29 Apr 1905 Pierre de Brazza lands in Libreville Gabon.
- 02 May 1905 French newspapers publish lists of Jules Vernes unpublished work.
- 05 May 1905 Robert S Abbott published first issue of newspaper "Chicago Defender".
- 10 May 1905 31st Kentucky Derby: Jack Martin aboard Agile wins in 2:100.75.
- 11 May 1905 Albert Einstein submits his doctoral dissertation ''On the Motion of Small Particles...'', in which he explains Brownian motion. In the course of the year, Einstein publishes four papers, formulates the theory of special relativity and explains the photoelectric effect by quantization. 1905 is regarded as his quotmiracle yearquot.
- 13 May 1905 James J Jeffries retires as boxing champion.
- 15 May 1905 Las Vegas Nevada founded
- 17 May 1905 Waseda University of Tokyo defeats Los Angeles High School 5-3 in baseball.
- 19 May 1905 Tom Jenkins beats Frank Gotcha for heavyweight wrestling champion.
- 22 May 1905 Royal Academy in Delft Holland becomes Technical High School.
- 24 May 1905 39th Belmont Stakes: Eugene Hildebrand aboard Tanya wins in 2:08.
- 25 May 1905 The Commonwealth statue is placed atop the Capitol.
- 26 May 1905 A pogrom against Jews in Minsk Belorussia.
- 27 May 1905 30th Preakness: W Davis aboard Cairngore wins in 1:45.8.
- 28 May 1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima ends with the destruction of the Russian Baltic Fleet by Admiral Togo Heihachiro and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
- 29 May 1905 Pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk Lithuania.
- 31 May 1905 Emperor Wilhelm II lands in Tanger.
- 01 Jun 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition opens in Portland, Oregon.
- 07 Jun 1905 Norway's parliament dissolves its union with Sweden, a vote that is confirmed by a national plebiscite on August 13 of that year.
- 09 Jun 1905 The Charlton Athletic F.C. is founded.
- 13 Jun 1905 New York Giants Christy Mathewson second no-hitter, beats Chicago Cubs, 1-0.
- 15 Jun 1905 Princess Margaret of Connaught marries Gustaf, Crown Prince of Sweden.
- 25 Jun 1905 Warsaw and Lodz revolt against Russian occupation
- 27 Jun 1905 Russian sailors mutiny aboard battleship Potemkin
- 29 Jun 1905 The Automobile Association is founded in the United Kingdom.
- 30 Jun 1905 Albert Einstein publishes the article ''On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'', in which he introduces special relativity.
- 03 Jul 1905 Kuyper government forms in Holland
- 04 Jul 1905 Philadelphia Athletics beat Boston Red Sox 4-2 in 20 inning game.
- 06 Jul 1905 Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time.
- 07 Jul 1905 127 degrees F (53 degrees C), Parker, Arizona (state record).
- 08 Jul 1905 Part of Angel Island allocated for Immigration Detention Center.
- 10 Jul 1905 Dutch Queen Wilhelmina opens Technical Hague court
- 11 Jul 1905 Niagara Movement founded by WEB Dubois
- 13 Jul 1905 The verdict in the six-month long Smarthavicharam trial of Kuriyedath Thathri is pronounced, leading to the excommunication of 65 men of various castes.
- 22 Jul 1905 Taft-Katsura Agreement.
- 23 Jul 1905 Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time.
- 31 Jul 1905 Matumbi rebellion at Samanga German East Africa
- 06 Aug 1905 26.7 cm rainfall at Princeton, Indiana (state record)
- 10 Aug 1905 Russo-Japanese War: peace negotiations begin in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
- 12 Aug 1905 King Leopold II opens Central Station Antwerp
- 14 Aug 1905 Ngindo-rebellion killed 5 RC German clergymen in East-Africa
- 15 Aug 1905 Philadelphia Athletics Rube Waddell no-hits Saint Louis Browns, 2-0 in five innings.
- 16 Aug 1905 Mbunga-rebellion occupy German post Ifakara East-Africa
- 17 Aug 1905 Dutch government of De Master begins
- 19 Aug 1905 Russian tsar installs Imperial Duma, without legislative powers
- 24 Aug 1905 Chicago Cubs beat the Philadelphia Phillies 2-1 in 20 innings.
- 25 Aug 1905 'Ancient Order of Druids' initiate neo-druidic rituals at Stonehenge in England.
- 29 Aug 1905 Pierre de Brazza leaves Brazzaville
- 30 Aug 1905 Pogoro / Ngindo attack Fort Mahenge German East-Africa
- 31 Aug 1905 25th US Mens Tennis: Beals C Wright beats Holcombe Ward (62 61 119)
- 05 Sep 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth USA, ends Russo-Japanese War.
- 06 Sep 1905 General Trade journal publishes 1st Dutch photo (train accident)
- 08 Sep 1905 Pittsburgh Pirates strand National League record 18 men on base and lose to Cincinnati Reds 8-3.
- 10 Sep 1905 Japanese battleship Mikasa explodes
- 14 Sep 1905 Albert Cuypstrat street market in Amsterdam inaugurated
- 18 Sep 1905 Electric tramline opens in Rotterdam.
- 20 Sep 1905 Cleveland makes AL record 7 errors in an inning
- 21 Sep 1905 Atlanta Life Insurance Co forms
- 22 Sep 1905 11th US Golf Open: Willie Anderson shoots a 314 at Myopia Club, Massachusetts
- 23 Sep 1905 Mbunga-siege of Fort Mahenge German East-Africa broken
- 27 Sep 1905 The physics journal Annalen der Physik published Albert Einstein's paper ''Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?'', introducing the equation E=mc?.
- 01 Oct 1905 Frantisek Pavlik is killed in a demonstration in Prague, inspiring Leos Janacek to the piano composition 1. X. 1905.
- 02 Oct 1905 HMS ''Dreadnought'' is laid down, revolutionizing battleship design and triggering a naval arms race.
- 05 Oct 1905 Wilbur Wright pilots Wright Flyer III in a flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes, a world record that stood until 1908.
- 09 Oct 1905 Philadelphia Athletics meet Giants in World Series, Giants win 3-0
- 14 Oct 1905 New York Giants beats Philadelphia Athletics, four games to one in second World Series, Giant's Christy Mathewson's third straight world series shutout.
- 15 Oct 1905 Union workers at NVV rejects safety demands
- 16 Oct 1905 The Partition of Bengal in India takes place.
- 20 Oct 1905 Russian tsar allows Polish people to speak Polish
- 21 Oct 1905 England Pilgrim Association beats All New York 11, 7-1 in soccer at Polo Grounds.
- 26 Oct 1905 Norway becomes independent from Sweden.
- 29 Oct 1905 Hottentot chief Hendrik Witbooi fataly injured
- 30 Oct 1905 Czar Nicholas II of Russia grants Russia's first constitution, creating a legislative assembly.
- 31 Oct 1905 Great revolutionary demonstration for amnesty in St. Petersburg
- 03 Nov 1905 Czar Nicholas II of Russia signs a document of amnesty for political prisoners.
- 04 Nov 1905 Harbor strike against importing grain elevators in Rotterdam
- 09 Nov 1905 Swedish mine workers win 5 month strike for minimum wages
- 10 Nov 1905 Sailors revolt in Kronstadt Russia
- 16 Nov 1905 Netherlands / Russian Count Witte becomes Premier of Russia
- 18 Nov 1905 George Bernard Shaws Major Barbara, premieres in London
- 21 Nov 1905 1st game ever played in the Australian Tennis Open
- 22 Nov 1905 British, Italian, Russ, French and Aust-Hung fleet attack Lesbos
- 23 Nov 1905 Henry Watson Furness, an Indiana physician, named minister of Haiti.
- 24 Nov 1905 Moshav Hertzlia forms in Israel
- 25 Nov 1905 The Danish Prins Carl arrives in Norway to become King Haakon VII of Norway.
- 28 Nov 1905 Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Fein as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.
- 04 Dec 1905 British government of Balfour resigns.
- 05 Dec 1905 Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal) becomes Prime Minister of England.
- 09 Dec 1905 French Assembly National votes for separation of church and state.
- 11 Dec 1905 British government of Campbell-Bannerman forms.
- 15 Dec 1905 The Pushkin House is established in St. Petersburg to preserve the cultural heritage of Alexander Pushkin
- 18 Dec 1905 H V Hordern takes 8-81 in second innings of F-C debut (New South Wales versus Queensland).
- 27 Dec 1905 M A Noble scores 281 (369 minutes, 21 fours) New South Wales versus Victoria.
- 28 Dec 1905 New South Wales all out for 805 versus Victoria, win by innings and 253.
- 30 Dec 1905 Former Governor Frank Steunenberg is assassinated near his home in Caldwell, Idaho.