1934

1934 was marked by a number of political events that set the stage for World War II.

1934

In May, the 1934 Constitution establishes the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria. On June 30th, The Night of the Long Knives began in Germany. Through to July 2nd, the Nazis would conduct a series of political assassinations to ensure Hitler’s hold on the country’s government. In August, Hitler officially became Führer of Germany, a title under which the powers of Chancellor of the Republic and President, essentially making him the absolute leader of Germany. This move was supported by 90% of the population during a referendum.

In China, the People’s Liberation Army began the Long March under the command of Mao Zedong, covering over 5600 miles while fleeing from Nationalist forces. Mao would go on to become the leader of communist China.

In the Americas, revolutionary leader Augusto César Sandino is assassinated in Nicaragua on February 21st. In the United States, famous outlaws Bonnie and Clyde are apprehended and killed on May 23rd. Another American outlaw, John Dillinger, a bank robber who captured the imagination of the Western World, escaped from jail in Crown Point, Indiana using a wooden pistol on March 3rd. He would be shot and killed a few months later in Chicago.

In culture, the classic comic strip Flash Gordon debuted on January 7th and Disney character Donald Duck made his first appearance ever in “The Wise Little Hen” on June 9th. The Gothenburg Prize for Poetry was awarded to Rudyard Kipling and William Butler Yeats. Notable births in 1934 include Canadian former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Israeli economist and Nobel Prize Winner Daniel Kahneman, Italian actress Sophia Loren, Canadian poet, novelist, and singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen, American inventor Robert Moog, French actress Brigitte Bardot and American astronomer Carl Sagan.

Discover how the world looked like in 1934

Movies

Which were the most popular Movies released in those months?
Watch popular movies, TV series and live events, start your 30-day free trial

Wheels of Destiny

Wheels of Destiny

Directed by: Alan James

Starring: Ken Maynard, Dorothy Dix, Philo McCullough, Frank Rice

It Happened One Night

It Happened One Night

Directed by: Frank Capra

Starring: Clark Gable, Claudette Colbert, Walter Connolly, Roscoe Karns

Country: United States of America

The Thin Man

The Thin Man

Directed by: W.S. Van Dyke

Starring: William Powell, Myrna Loy, Maureen O'Sullivan, Nat Pendleton

Country: United States of America

Twentieth Century

Twentieth Century

Directed by: Howard Hawks

Starring: John Barrymore, Carole Lombard, Walter Connolly, Roscoe Karns

Country: United States of America

The Scarlet Empress

The Scarlet Empress

Directed by: Josef von Sternberg

Starring: Marlene Dietrich, John Lodge, Sam Jaffe, Louise Dresser

Country: United States of America

vinyl songs

Music charts

Which were the top hits of 1934?


Top #1 songs in the USA

Popular names

Which were the top popular names given to babies born in 1934 in the USA ?

Top #10 male names
  1. Robert
  2. James
  3. John
  4. William
  5. Richard
  6. Donald
  7. Charles
  8. George
  9. Thomas
  10. Joseph
Top #10 female names
  1. Mary
  2. Betty
  3. Barbara
  4. Shirley
  5. Dorothy
  6. Patricia
  7. Joan
  8. Margaret
  9. Helen
  10. Nancy
history

Historical Events

Which were the important events of 1934?


Events

  • 01 Jan Nazi Germany passes the ''Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring''.
  • 02 Jan First state liquor stores open, in Pennsylvania.
  • 05 Jan National and American baseball leagues select a uniform ball.
  • 07 Jan Flash Gordon comic strip (by Alex Raymond) debuts
  • 08 Jan Jaap Speyers Bluejackets premieres in Amsterdam
  • 13 Jan The Candidate of Science degree is established in the USSR.
  • 15 Jan 8.4 earthquake in India / Nepal, 10,700 die
  • 17 Jan Carl Hubbell, NL MVP winner, gets $18,000 contract by the New York Giants
  • 20 Jan Japan sends Henry Pu Yi as regent to emperor of Manchuria.
  • 26 Jan Nazi Germany and Poland sign non-attack treaty for 10 years
  • 27 Jan VARA refuses to hire after commemoration of Marinus Van de Lubbe.
  • 28 Jan First US ski tow (rope) begins operation (Woodstock, Vermont).
  • 30 Jan 1st theatrical presentation sponsored by US government, New York City
  • 31 Jan FDR devalus dollar in relation to gold at $35 per ounce
  • 01 Feb Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss dissolves all political parties but his own.
  • 02 Feb The Export-Import Bank of the United States is incorporated.
  • 06 Feb Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.
  • 07 Feb 1st contract for TVA power, Tupelo, Mississippi
  • 08 Feb Gaston Doumergue forms new French government.
  • 09 Feb Balkan Entente alliance forms (Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, and Romania).
  • 10 Feb Thomson / Gertrude Steins opera premieres in New York City
  • 12 Feb Export-Import Bank incorporates
  • 13 Feb The Soviet steamship Cheliuskin sinks in the Arctic Ocean.
  • 14 Feb NHL Ace Bailey Benefit Game: Toronto Maple Leafs beats All-Stars 7-3 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 16 Feb Over Texas, USA, a pilot swerves to avoid crashing with a fireball.
  • 17 Feb First high school auto driving course offered (State College, Pennsylvania).
  • 19 Feb Bob and Dolores Hope marry
  • 21 Feb Nicaraguan patriot Augusto Cesar Sandino assassinated by National Guard.
  • 22 Feb Frank Capra's ''It Happened One Night'', starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, is released. It becomes a smash hit and the first of Capra's great screen classics. It becomes the first film to win all 5 of the major Academy Awards ampndash Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Screenplay, Best Director, and Best Picture. Gable and Colbert receive their only Oscars for this film.
  • 23 Feb Casey Stengel becomes manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers.
  • 01 Mar Primo Carnera beats Tommy Loughran in 15 for heavyweight boxing title.
  • 02 Mar Union Pacific tests light-weight high-speed passenger train, Omaha. Nebraska.
  • 03 Mar John Dillinger breaks out of jail using a wooden pistol.
  • 04 Mar Easter Cross on Mt Davidson (San Francisco) dedicated
  • 05 Mar Mother-in-law's day first celebrated (Amarillo, Texas).
  • 08 Mar Edwin Hubble photo shows as many galaxies as Milky Way has stars.
  • 10 Mar US Ladies Figure Skating Championship won by Suzanne Davis.
  • 11 Mar Netherlands beats Belgium 9-3, in soccer.
  • 12 Mar Josip Broz (Tito) freed from jail
  • 13 Mar John Dillinger, Baby Face Nelson and their gang rob the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa.
  • 15 Mar US Information Service opens.
  • 16 Mar US Congress passes Migratory Bird Conservation Act.
  • 20 Mar Female Babe Didrickson pitches hitless inning for Philadelphia Athletics in exhibition game against Brooklyn Dodgers
  • 21 Mar Fire destroys Hakodate Japan, killing about 1,500
  • 22 Mar Fire destroys Hakodate, Japan (kills 1,500, injures 1,000).
  • 23 Mar US Congress accepts Philippines independence in 1945.
  • 24 Mar US declares the Philippines to become independent in 1945
  • 31 Mar Netherlands Indies BC Ltd begins radio transmission (Indonesia)
  • 06 Apr 418 Lutheran ministers are arrested in Germany.
  • 07 Apr In India, Mahatma Gandhi suspends his campaign of civil disobedience.
  • 12 Apr The strongest surface wind gust in the world at 231 mph, is measured on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire.
  • 13 Apr US Congress passes Johnson Debt Default Act.
  • 18 Apr First "Washateria" (laundromat) opens (Fort Worth, Texas).
  • 19 Apr Shirley Temple appears in her 1st movie, Stand Up & Cheer
  • 20 Apr Heinrich Himmler becomes inspector of Prussian secret state police.
  • 21 Apr Moe Berg, Washington Senators' catcher, plays American League record 117th consecutive errorless game.
  • 22 Apr John Dillinger and two others shoot their way out of an FBI ambush in northern Wisconsin.
  • 28 Apr FDR signs Home Owners Loan Act
  • 30 Apr The first S-train line in Copenhagen is opened. The Line started in Klampenborg and ended in Frederiksberg.
  • 01 May Water state kingdom dismisses NSB-leader Anton Mussert
  • 05 May 60th Kentucky Derby: Mack Garner aboard Cavalcade wins in 2:04.
  • 07 May Pulitzer prize awarded to Sidney Kingsley (Men in White)
  • 11 May Over two days, the most severe dust storm to date in the USA sweeps an estimated 350 million tons of topsoil from the Great Plains across to the eastern seaboard.
  • 12 May Cocktails For Two, by Duke Ellington hits #1
  • 13 May Great dustbowl storm
  • 15 May Department of Justice offers $25,000 reward for John Dillinger, dead or alive.
  • 18 May Academy Award 1st called Oscar in print (Sidney Skolsky)
  • 19 May Sherlock Holmes crossword puzzle in Sat Review of Lit Males who solved puzzle became members of Baker Street Irregulars
  • 21 May Oskaloosa Iowa, becomes 1st US city to fingerprint its citizens
  • 23 May Wallace Carothers manufactures first nylon (polymeer 66).
  • 24 May Colombia and Peru sign accord about harbor city Leticia.
  • 26 May Century of Progress Exposition reopens in Chicago
  • 28 May The Glyndebourne festival in England is inaugurated.
  • 29 May May 31 ampndash The Confessional Synod of the German Evangelical Church meets in Barmen, Germany to write the Barmen Declaration.
  • 03 Jun Dr Frederick Banting, co-discoverer of insulin, is knighted.
  • 05 Jun 1st formal meeting of Baker Street Irregulars (NYC)
  • 06 Jun Yankee Myrl Hoag hits 6 singles in one game
  • 09 Jun 1st Donald Duck cartoon, Wise Little Hen, released
  • 10 Jun USSR and Romania regain diplomatic relations
  • 11 Jun Disarmament conference in Geneva fails
  • 12 Jun Black-McKeller Bill passes causes Bill Boeing empire to break up into Boeing United Aircraft [Technologies] and United Air Lines
  • 13 Jun Adolf Hitler and Mussolini meet in Venice, Italy; Mussolini later describes the German dictator as ''a silly little monkey''.
  • 14 Jun Hitler and Mussolini meet in Vienna
  • 15 Jun Great Smokey Mountains National Park dedicated.
  • 18 Jun US Highway planning surveys nationwide are authorized.
  • 19 Jun US Congress pases the Silver Purchase Act, directing the Secretary of the Treasury to purchase silver until market price reaches $1.2929 per ounce, or until value of silver stock reaches one-third of gold stock.
  • 25 Jun Hedley Verity takes 15 wickets vs. Australia (7-61 & 8-43)
  • 26 Jun FDR signs Federal Credit Union Act, establishing Credit Unions
  • 27 Jun Federal Savings and Loan Association created.
  • 28 Jun Hitler flies to Essen (Night of Long Knifes)
  • 30 Jun Night of Long Knives, Hitler stages bloody purge of Nazi party
  • 01 Jul First x-ray photo of entire body, Rochester, New York.
  • 02 Jul The Night of the Long Knives ends with the death of Ernst Rohm.
  • 03 Jul FDIC pays off first insured depositors, Fon du Lac Bank, East Peoria, Illinois.
  • 04 Jul Jordanians revolt in Amsterdam after reduction in employment
  • 05 Jul ''Bloody Thursday'' : Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
  • 07 Jul Elizabeth Ryan wins her 12th Wimbeldon doubles championship.
  • 10 Jul 2nd All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 9-7 at Polo Grounds, New York
  • 11 Jul FDR became 1st President to travel through Panama Canal
  • 12 Jul Willy de Supervise swims world record 400m (5:16.0)
  • 13 Jul Babe Ruth hits home run number 700 against Detroit Tigers.
  • 14 Jul New York Times erroneously declares Ruth 700 HR record to stand for all time
  • 15 Jul Continental Airlines commences operations.
  • 16 Jul Bradman scores 140 Aust vs. Yorkshire, 120 mins, 22 fours 2 sixes
  • 17 Jul Babe Ruth draws his 2,000th base on balls at Cleveland
  • 20 Jul 118 degrees F (48 degrees C), Keokuk, Iowa (state record).
  • 21 Jul 113 degrees F (45 degrees C), near Gallipolis, Ohio (state record).
  • 22 Jul Outside Chicago's Biograph Theater, ''Public Enemy No. 1'' John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
  • 23 Jul Bradman completes 304 at Headingley, 430 mins, 43 fours 2 sixes
  • 24 Jul 1st ptarmigan hatched and reared in captivity, Ithaca, New York
  • 25 Jul Failed Nazi coup in Austria
  • 28 Jul 118 degrees F (48 degrees C), Orofino, Idaho (state record).
  • 29 Jul 17th PGA Championship: Paul Runyan at Park Country Club - Williamsville, New York
  • 31 Jul 29th Davis Cup: Great Britain beats USA in Wimbledon (4-1)
  • 02 Aug Adolph Hitler becomes commander-in-chief of Germany
  • 04 Aug New York Giants' player Mel Ott sets record of six runs in game and beats Philadelphia Phillies 21-4.
  • 06 Aug US troops leave Haiti, which had been occupied since 1915
  • 08 Aug The Wehrmacht swears a personal oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler.
  • 09 Aug US President Franklin Roosevelt nationalizes silver.
  • 10 Aug Babe Ruth announces this is his final season as full time player
  • 11 Aug 1st federal prisoners arrive at Alcatraz in SF Bay
  • 13 Aug The comic strip ''Li'l Abner'' is first published in US newspapers.
  • 16 Aug US explorer William Beebe descends 3,028 feet (1922 m) in Bathysphere.
  • 18 Aug 48th US Womens Tennis: Helen Jacobs beats Sarah H Cooke (61 64)
  • 19 Aug 48th US Womens Tennis: Helen Jacobs beats Sarah H P Fabyan (61 64)
  • 22 Aug Bill Woodfull of Australia becomes the only cricket captain to twice regain The Ashes.
  • 25 Aug Anti-union vigilantes seize the town of McGuffey, Ohio, during the Hardin County onion pickers strike.
  • 27 Aug Arlen, Ira Gershwin and Harburgs musical premieres in New York City
  • 31 Aug 1st NFL Chicago All-Star Game: Chi Bears 0, All-Stars 0 (79,432)
  • 01 Sep Spelling-Marchand Laws enforced
  • 03 Sep Tunisia begins its move for independence.
  • 05 Sep 10 ampndash 8th Nuremberg Rally
  • 07 Sep Luxury liner Morro Castle burns off NJ, killing 134
  • 08 Sep 54th US Mens Tennis: Fred Perry beats Wilmer L Allison (64 63 16 86)
  • 09 Sep Armas Toivonen becomes 1st European marathoner (2:52:29.0)
  • 12 Sep Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania signs Baltic Entente, against USSR
  • 13 Sep Judge Landis sells World Series broadcast rights to Ford for $100,000
  • 17 Sep USSR joins League of Nations (Netherlands, Switzerland and Portugal vote no)
  • 18 Sep The USSR is admitted to League of Nations.
  • 19 Sep Bruno Haptmann arrested for kidnapping Lindbergh baby
  • 21 Sep Typhoon strikes Honshu Island, Japan, kills 4,000.
  • 22 Sep An explosion takes place at Gresford Colliery in Wales, leading to the deaths of 266 miners and rescuers.
  • 24 Sep Idle Detroit wins pennant, as Red Sox beat Yankees 5-0
  • 25 Sep Lou Gehrig plays in his 1500th consecutive Major League Baseball game.
  • 26 Sep British liner Queen Mary is launched
  • 28 Sep Over California, USA, a pilot escapes a fireball shower.
  • 29 Sep Rondo Hatton weds Mabel Housh
  • 30 Sep FDR dedicates Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam)
  • 01 Oct Adolph Hitler expands German army and navy and creates an air force, violating Treaty of Versailles
  • 02 Oct A tornado in Osaka and Kyoto kills 1,660, injures 5,400, and destroys the rice harvest.
  • 05 Oct Miners rebel in Asturias, Spain (see Asturian miners' strike of 1934).
  • 06 Oct Catalonian separatists rebel in Spain.
  • 08 Oct Bruno Hauptmann is indicted for murder of Lindbergh's son.
  • 09 Oct Regicide at Marseille: The assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, Foreign Minister of France.
  • 14 Oct Lux Radio Theatre premieres
  • 15 Oct The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.
  • 16 Oct Mao Tse-tung and 25,000 troops begin 6,000 mile Long March
  • 17 Oct The Aldrich Family premieres on radio
  • 18 Oct Chinese Red leader under Mao Tse Tung begins Long March
  • 20 Oct All-Star team led by Babe Ruth and Connie Mack sails to Hawaii and Japan
  • 22 Oct In East Liverpool, Ohio, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.
  • 23 Oct Jean Piccard and Jeanette Ridlen attain balloon height of 17.341 m (rec)
  • 31 Oct The Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago closes. Over the two years, there were 38,867,000 visitors.
  • 02 Nov Babe Ruth tours Tokyo Japan
  • 03 Nov Although Lou Gehrig wins Triple Crown, Mickey Cochrane wins AL MVP
  • 06 Nov NFL Philadelphia Eagles beat Cincinnati Reds 64-0
  • 07 Nov Arthur L Mitchell, becomes 1st black Democratic congressman (Ill)
  • 08 Nov Ford Frick, NL publicity director, is named league President
  • 11 Nov WOC-AM in Davenport Iowa splits from WHO-WOC and becomes KICK-AM
  • 13 Nov The Italian government decrees that teachers must wear a military or party uniform in a class.
  • 15 Nov Nobel for chemistry awarded to Harold C Urey (deuterium)
  • 17 Nov Lyndon B Johnson marries Claudia Alta Taylor
  • 20 Nov New Belgian government of Theunis, Francqui and Gutt (3 bankers)
  • 21 Nov Uiver returns from Schiphol in London-Melbourne air race
  • 24 Nov CFL Grey Cup: Sarnia beats Regina, 20-12 at Toronto
  • 26 Nov German Theologist Karl Barth surrenders to Nazi
  • 27 Nov Bank robber Baby Face Nelson dies in a shoot-out with the FBI.
  • 28 Nov Churchill tells Premier Baldwin not to under estimate German air power
  • 29 Nov English King George V weds Princess Marina of Greece / Denmark
  • 30 Nov The steam locomotive Flying Scotsman becomes the first to officially exceed 100mph.
  • 01 Dec In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot dead by Leonid Nikolayev at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad.
  • 02 Dec 5.08-m (200) Mt Palomar Observatory mirror is cast
  • 03 Dec KYW-AM in Chicago Ill moves to Philadelphia Penn
  • 05 Dec Abyssinia Crisis: Italian troops attack Wal Wal in Abyssinia, taking four days to capture the city.
  • 07 Dec Wiley Post discovers the jet stream.
  • 09 Dec New York Giants defeat Chicago Bears 30-13 for NFL championship.
  • 10 Dec Saint-Adelbert cooperation formed by Catholic elite.
  • 11 Dec 1935 All-Star Game is assigned to Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 13 Dec Mark Hellinger Theater (Warner Bros) opens at 237 W 51st St, New York City
  • 14 Dec First streamlined steam locomotive introduced (Albany, New York).
  • 15 Dec Fokker F18 Snip flies to the Netherlands West Indies
  • 18 Dec A low-key fascist conference is held in Moreaux.
  • 19 Dec Japan agress to fleet treaty of 1922 and 1930.
  • 22 Dec Miss Theo Trowbridge sets female bowling record 702 pins in games
  • 24 Dec Grimmett takes 9-180 for SA as Queensland make 430
  • 25 Dec Four centuries for South Africa as they make 7-644 versus Queensland before 6,180.
  • 26 Dec An American Airlines aircraft crashes in the Adirondack Mountains.
  • 27 Dec First youth hostel in US opens (Northfield, Massachusetts).
  • 29 Dec Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
  • 31 Dec Helen Richey becomes 1st woman to pilot an airmail transport